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Jinemed Director of Women's Health Center Dr. Teksen Çamlıbel will tell you how your baby grows week by week for the next 4 weeks. Here are all stages of pregnancy with you…
First week of pregnancy…
Surprisingly, for most people, the beginning of pregnancy is not considered the day of pregnancy, but about 14 days before the first menstrual period (SAT). In this case, your pregnancy starts on the day your bleeding starts statistically. When calculated in this way, pregnancy lasts 280 days, ie 40 weeks in humans. Since calculating months can cause confusion, it is necessary to express them in weeks when you follow your pregnancy.
Ovulation time for women who have menstrual once every 28 days is considered to be around 14 days from the beginning of bleeding. These days are the best time to give up harmful habits. For example, smoking should be stopped and alcohol and medication should be restricted. Appropriate and healthy eating habits should be tried to achieve. These habits are important for a comfortable pregnancy process. It is necessary to consume plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, to avoid artificial foods and drink as much water as possible. If not started, folic acid intake can be started. Folic acid can prevent approximately 50% of the neural tube defect. Exercise, if possible, is also quite beneficial. In this pre-pregnancy period, thinking positively and resting as much as possible to avoid stress is a very good start for the baby who is trying to give birth.
Hormones at work
Egg cell development continues in the ovaries of the expectant mother. In the meantime, the uterine membrane called the endometrium begins to thicken. This thickening aims to ensure that the embryo will be easily held in the uterus after fertilization occurs. Blood supply is increasing in this part of the body to meet the needs of the newly developing creature. At the end of this week, the developing egg is cracked and expelled from the ovary. So spawning occurs. Only one egg is produced and cracked during a menstrual period. Unlike double egg twins and triplets, more than one egg is thrown. If all of these eggs are fertilized, multiple pregnancies occur.
You are at the beginning of life…
The egg from the ovaries is thrown from the ovaries and the sperm from the male encounters the fallopian tubes. Although many sperm are clustered around the egg, only one of them passes through the egg's membrane and combines its genetic material with the genetic material of the egg. With fertilization, the miracle called life begins. Fertilization, that is, fertilization begins with the entry of a single sperm into the egg cell and ends with the emergence of the formation called zygote. The fertilization process takes about 24 hours. A sperm can survive for about 48 hours. Approximately 300 million sperm are left in the vagina during intercourse. Only 1% of the sperm can enter the uterus. Sperm entering the uterus in the woman's reproductive organs to reach the tube reaches. After 10 hours of travel, another task waits for the sperm to reach the egg cell; crust The egg cell is surrounded by a membrane called “zona pellucida.. Only one sperm can penetrate the egg by penetrating this membrane. This process, called penetration, lasts for 20 minutes and after a sperm has penetrated, the ona zona pellucida ”is completely closed and does not allow another sperm to enter. With the merger of the nuclei of sperm and egg cells, the zygote appears and fertilization ends.
Unicellular zygote in the zona pellucida begins to divide 1.5-3 days after fertilization. This first division is called cleavage. The resulting cells are called blastomeres. Following cleavage, a rapid division process begins. Approximately every 20 hours, the number of cells doubles and with each division the blastomeres in the zona pellucida become smaller in diameter. When the cell count reaches 16, it is now called zygote morula. As all these events take place, the zygote continues its journey into the uterine cavity within the tube. By the 4th day, the morula has reached the uterus. At this stage, cell division continues rapidly and a gap begins to form in the center of the morula. The formation at this stage is called “blastocyst.. Although the zona pellucida dimensions are fixed, the cells inside are flattened and concentrated. In the blastocyst stage, cell differentiation is now beginning. While some of the cells are embryobalastes that will form the embryo, the remaining cells differentiate into trophoblasts to make the placenta.
5-6 days after fertilization, implantation, ie, placement into the uterus begins. The blastocyst ruptures the zona pellucida. This is called “hatching.. In the meantime, the transformer secretes an enzyme that changes the cell structure in the uterus and provides an implantation site for the blastocyst. At the same time, the hormone hCG is released from the trophoblasts. This is the hormone that makes the pregnancy tests positive. Following the implantation, the blood supply increases in that part of the endometrium (inner membrane of the uterus) and the blood circulation begins for the continuation of pregnancy.
At the time of insemination, the sex of the baby becomes apparent. If the fertilizing sperm carries the X chromosome, the girl is carrying the Y chromosome and the baby boy is born. Therefore, the male who determines the sex of the baby, that is the father. She has no role in the baby gender. It is only possible to determine gender in this period by genetic examination. At this stage, it is not only the gender. After 38 weeks, the individual will say hello to the world and his whole genetic structure is determined from eye color to blood type.
Changes in the mother
At this stage, there will be no physical or mental changes in the mother. Bleeding may occur as a slight spotting during implantation alone.
I'il be a mother
At the end of this week, you can declare to the world that you will be a mother. Normally, your menstrual period is delayed. You know there may be such delays from time to time, but you're still excited. Then why do you have to wonder? Take a pregnancy test from the pharmacy immediately and do it at home. If the result is negative, do not despair immediately because pregnancy tests may be negative from time to time. In this case, you should go to your doctor. If you don't have a doctor yet, start asking your friends immediately. It is not possible to see the gestational sac in the ultrasonography performed during this period. However, the pregnancy test in the blood can detect whether pregnancy is 100% accurate.
If you do not have pregnancy or menstruation, try not to worry too much. Keep in mind that the rate of conception on the first attempt is only 25%. Keep trying. If you are not pregnant despite a menstrual delay, your doctor will recommend a treatment that will allow you to have your period. A pregnant woman has some physiological and psychological changes. The symptoms at this stage are almost the same as the premenstrual symptoms. Weakness, fatigue and breast tenderness.
Approximately one week after fertilization, implants occur and cells called trophoblasts damage endometrial cells, causing tiny blood ponds. These fertilization triggers the formation of new vessels and the circulation of the placenta will begin. The group of cells called embryoblasts proliferates rapidly to form a 2-layer disc. While the top of these layers continues to develop as amniotic membrane and embryo, the lower layer forms the formation called sac yolk sac..
At the end of the 4th week, the tissue called “chorionic villus ler proceeds into the uterus and blood vessels form in the embryo. Yolk sheet is produced cells that make up the blood system. At the end of this week, there is a formation called “connecting stalk arasında between the embryo and the placenta, which then forms the umbilical cord.
Let's take a look at this pregnancy.
With the effect of secreted hormones, the first changes begin to emerge. Fullness and tenderness in the breasts are the most common complaints this week. There is constant drowsiness and weakness. As growth in the uterus reduces the capacity of the bladder, there is often a need to go to the toilet. The vaginal ultrasonography of the doctor can be seen in the uterus of the pregnancy sac. If the sac cannot be seen on ultrasound, it may be an ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is a serious condition that can cause life-threatening bleeding through the abdomen, so the first check-up should not be delayed. Performing vaginal ultrasound is not harmful to pregnancy and baby, you should not worry about it.
On the 16th day, the growth is accelerated. The membranes, tongue, tonsils, urethra, bladder and digestive system that surround the lungs develop from the endoderm layer, but the muscles, bones, lymph system, spleen, blood cells, heart, lungs and reproductive and excretory systems differ from the mesoderm layer. Skin, nails, hair, lens layer of the eye, hearing system, nose, sinuses, mouth, anus, enamel, pituitary gland, breast tissue and nervous system begin to differentiate from ectoderm layer. 17-19 days after fertilization, the embryonic area looks like a pear. The head is wider than the tail. The ectoderm layer thickens to form the neural plate. The edges of this plate are curled and are called the “neural groove”. This is the outline of the embryo's nervous system and is one of the first developing organ systems.
At the end of this week the baby's blood cells are formed and begin to form channels between the epithelial cells. When day 21 is reached, the somites originating from the mesoderm begin to appear on both sides of the neural groove and starting from the tail. Endocardial cells form the primitive heart tubes in the early embryo.
Attention has work!
Maybe you still don't have any complaints that make you realize you're pregnant. You see no difference with your pre-pregnancy experience. You should know that there is a factory inside you and it works faster than you can imagine. Each individual cell of the embryo is in continuous operation. As a result of this activity, some complaints gradually begin to emerge. Like many women, you may notice that your stomach is sick, especially when you wake up in the morning. In the past, the smell of food that attracts you now gives you disgust or you suddenly realize that your favorite perfume of your spouse is not at all beautiful. Your colleague's cigarette has never bothered you so much. In fact, all these smells are the same again. You're the one who changed. Emesis gravidarum is the result of pregnancy hormones stimulating the nausea center in your brain. If nausea and vomiting are severe enough to affect your life and diet, hyperemesis gravidarum has developed. You may need to take medication.
This period is critical for the development of the baby's organ, such as alcohol, cigarette substances that may be harmful to the baby should be avoided. Many expectant mothers want to share their pregnancy with their loved ones and friends, and the good news that a new individual will join the family is given this week. Some expectant mothers wait for the low-risk period to pass, and ensure that pregnancy is normal. Both behaviors are normal.
On 21-23 days, the embryo is about 1.5-3 mm in length. Eye and ear sketches occur. The neural tube slowly closes and the so-called neural crown begins to form the skull and head. The heart of the embryo starts beating. However, since the vessels do not develop completely, there is no complete circulation.
At the end of the 27th day, the embryo becomes C-shaped. The folds that form the face and neck become clearer. In the heart septal that separates the ventricles and atria appear. Valves begin to develop. The cells that make up the digestive system are differentiated to produce liver, stomach and pancreas. The first differentiating cell group in the digestive system is the cells that will make the liver. The embryo reaches 5 mm in length.
Buds are blooming
Even though you still don't notice anything from the outside, the feverish activity continues in your embryo. By the end of this week, your baby is as big as a bean grain. If you have a chance to look directly into the uterus or place a camera, you will see an object that starts just like a bean. When paying attention to the top of this bean, two small black dots are noticed. These two little points will be your baby's eyes. In fact, the retina, the mesh layer of the eye, begins to form. A little further on the edge of the pit from the beginning of the small pits also develop as ears. These organs are involved in both balance and hearing. A primitive mouth and tongue can be noticed. Again this week, the arm and leg buds begin to form. Skin appears in a thin layer. The brain is divided into 3 main parts. The thyroid gland continues to develop and the lymphatic system begins to form for the first time. Heart parts are filled with plasma and blood cells. Blood circulation starts. For the time being, the two-part heart beats 150 times per minute. Your doctor can listen to your baby's heartbeat with Doppler ultrasound. Lung development continues. Gallbladder, stomach, intestines and pancreas development continues. Blood from the placenta reaches the liver. The arm buds are now very prominent, whereas the leg buds begin to form. The embryo is now completely embedded in the amniotic sac. Somites begin to differentiate to form muscles and bones.
There are no changes that make you aware that you are pregnant from the outside. During this period 1-2 pounds can be taken or given. Both conditions are normal. Early signs of pregnancy gradually begin to diminish, although nausea and vomiting may increase. These complaints are particularly high in the early morning hours.
Palmistry is looked after!
In terms of terminology, your baby is still called an embryo. This is because there is a tail-like protrusion at the bottom. The only part that shrinks in your developing baby is this bulge. Other sections continue to grow rapidly. Especially the brain and head continue to grow rapidly. Eyelids can be distinguished in the form of curves. The lower jaw begins to become prominent. The spinal cord continues its development. The upper palate differs. The tip of the nose is formed. The teeth under the gums start the development. The esophagus differs and is separated from the trachea. Valves begin to be noticed in the heart. The 4 chambers of the heart can be distinguished. The lungs are located on either side of the esophagus. The kidney begins to form. While the arms start to extend cylindrically, the hands start to appear at the ends. Nerve conduction begins in the arms. Again the arms fold. This crimp creates future elbows.
Your uterus, which is up to a closed fist before pregnancy, is now almost as orange. These growths in the uterus may cause abdominal cramps, which you may feel from time to time. In the meantime, you may feel like you are in puberty. Because of hormonal changes, skin changes begin to show. A typical indication of this is that the skin is lubricated and acne occurs. Your psychological state gradually begins to improve and pregnancy is accepted. Now you're getting used to pregnancy.
I have to pee!
Embryonic tail disappears thoroughly. Cartilage and bone tissues begin to form. Intestines begin to migrate through the umbilical cord into the abdominal cavity. The brain is still the largest organ. The pharynx begins to become apparent. The formation of the oral cavity can be seen. The auricle differs. The retina in the eye can be clearly visible. Eyelids are noticeable. The nostrils appear. Nerves are used to smell. The esophagus is extended and the blood exiting the heart begins to be pumped in two different directions. The nipples become prominent. The small intestine grows, the kidney formation is completed and it starts producing urine for the first time. Primitive sex cells begin to form. Differentiation of external genital organs begins. However it still wouldn't be bellli to have more girls or boys. The hand and elbow become prominent. Nerve conduction begins in the legs. The baby starts to move slightly in the water he swims in.
Although you do not have a significant weight gain, breasts grow and fullness and tenderness. You may need to start wearing a supportive bra during this period. Burning may occur as a result of stomach contents escaping into the esophagus. During this period, your daily caloric requirement increases by about 300 calories. In order to get enough calcium, you should drink plenty of milk. If you don't like to drink milk, you can consume special medicines or better yet, dairy products like lean cheese.
Time to move
47-48 days after fertilization, brain waves are produced for the first time. The head is in an upright position and the inner ear develops a balance. The development of the lips is completed. The eyes are still closed. Gonads develop and differentiate into testes or ovaries. It substantially complements the heart development. Intestines developed outside the body move well into the abdominal cavity. The knee and foot become prominent. His toes and nails are clear. The muscles begin to gain strength. The clitoris in girls and boys develops penis. As almost all joints and muscles are formed, the baby begins to move in the water sac, but these movements are not enough for you to feel. At the end of this week, your baby's organ development, called ogen organogenesis ır, is completed. These organs mature in the rest of pregnancy.
In these periods, fluctuations in the emotional state of the expectant mother are very common. You may feel very happy from time to time in melancholic times. This is very normal. You should ensure that you receive enough fluoride for the health of both your developing baby's teeth and your own gums. As your blood volume increases, you may notice darkening of the veins near your skin. This is especially noticeable in the legs and breasts. Your weight has now started to increase. It may be expected that nausea and vomiting begin to decrease during these periods.