However, 70% are simply structurally small, and therefore IUGR (intrauterine growth retardation) is misused for most fetuses. In fact, body fat ratio, total protein, total DNA, RNA and free fatty acids were decreased in patients with IUGR. 20% of those with IUGR have symmetrical smallness. So all organs are small in the same proportion. 80% of IUGR cases are asymmetric. Brain weight was relatively preserved in this, but especially liver and thymus weight decreased. In these, there is a slight decrease in the size of the brain, not due to the number of cells.
In fetuses with symmetrical IUGR, the brain has also shrunk due to decreased brain cells.
Pulmonary and renal blood flow decreases in IUGR cases, which leads to a decrease in amniotic fluid.
Genetic abnormalities are effective in 30% of cases. Especially in Down syndrome, the probability of IUGR increases 4 times. In addition, IUGR is frequently found in trisomy and Turner syndrome of chromosomes 18 and 13, duodenal atresia, achondroplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta, gastrointestinal and in some syndromes. In these IUGR starts early in pregnancy but this is not a rule.
Some infectious agents infect the unborn baby and affect its growth. Such cases constitute 15% of the cases. The most common cause is cytomegalovirus (CMV). In the first 3 months, the mother's rubella disease disrupts the vasculature of the fetus and causes many damages and stops its growth. Toxoplasmosis, herpes virus, chickenpox, polio and influenza viruses can also cause IUGR.
Placenta (spouse) is a formation that sends all the requirements from mother to fetus. In IUGR cases, placenta sizes are found to be small. The abnormalities of the placenta are also the cause of IUGR.
The risk of IUGR increases in multiple pregnancies by 20-30%.
Many maternal factors are the cause of IUGR. Once IUGR gives birth, the risk for the next pregnancy of the mother increases twice.
High blood pressure during pregnancy of the mother is the most common cause of IUGR. In addition, the mother's smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, malnutrition, collagen disease increases the risk.
The most important tool for diagnosis is the ultrasound of the fetus taken in the early period of pregnancy. In particular, measurements at 11-12 weeks are the most assured. The measurement of the baby's abdominal circumference in the following weeks of gestation is the most important measure evaluating fetal growth. In addition, amniotic fluid measurement in ultrasound is important in IUGR cases. In suspicious cases, umbilical and uterine artery doppler measurements are performed. The brain blood flow of the fetus is also measured.
In IUGR cases, the necessity of preterm birth is a common condition. Therefore, the possibility of cesarean birth increases. Depending on the cause and severity of IUGR, the probability of developing problems in the newborn increases.
In most of the IUGR, the cause cannot be prevented, so only some attempts can be made to protect it. Pregnant mothers should stay away from infectious agents, take care of their nutrition, get rid of their bad habits, regulate hypertension, and use aspirin to the mother in some cases.
IUGR babies catch their peers within 6 months of birth, but are usually physically shorter. Although they are not generalized, they have more neurological and intellectual problems.