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It is a fact that children get sick more in winter. Flu, cough is one of the most common complaints. Acıbadem Health Group Child Health and Diseases Specialist Contact Murat directly öncesi These infections can cause bronchitis, pneumonia, even heart rheumatism, çek he said, noting that children in the preschool period have an average of 6-8 respiratory infections per year.
: What are the most common throat infections in children in winter?
Dr. Contact Murat directly The respiratory system is the most susceptible to infections in children. Respiratory tract infections are the most common infectious diseases of childhood. In preschool, a child has an average of 6-8 times a year of respiratory tract infection. It can occur in different ways; mild and feverish flu can vary from infection to pneumonia. Influenza, pharyngitis with pharyngitis, otitis media and sinusitis are common infections of the upper respiratory tract, while laryngitis, laryngeal inflammation, pseudoparasite, epiglottitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia constitute the most common manifestations of all these tables. Throat infection is described as upper respiratory tract infection. The two main groups that cause these infections are microorganisms, viruses and bacteria.
: What are the factors that cause these infections?
Dr. Contact Murat directly Upper respiratory tract infection or nasopharyngitis is inflammation of the nasal passage and pharynx. The majority of cases start suddenly. It is caused by viral agents. On average, children experience this infection three to eight times a year. Upper respiratory tract infections are 50 percent more common in children in day-care homes and nurseries. Living in smoking environments, nutritional disorders, being in crowded, confined spaces increases the risk and frequency of infection. Transmission usually occurs when the causative agent in the nasal secretions of sick people is passed on to other people. The main forms of contamination are the spreading of these secretions into the air as droplets as a result of coughing or sneezing and their placement in the upper respiratory tract mucosa of other persons or the spreading of these secretions to the hands of other persons and the outer layer of the nose and eyeball.
: What kind of problems do they cause if left untreated?
Dr. Contact Murat directly The main problem and purpose in the diagnosis and treatment of these infections is to differentiate viral nasopharyngitis from bacterial infections. Viral upper respiratory tract infections spontaneously heal without treatment, while antibiotics should be used for bacterial infections such as sinusitis. If the infected person does not use the effective antibiotic at the appropriate dose and time, it can spread the infection to those around him.
: How should a treatment be applied?
Dr. Contact Murat directly Inflammation of the nose, the most common infection of childhood, a runny nose and nasal congestion These infections often heal themselves and do not require treatment. Parosetamol ibuprofen is the best treatment agent for severe infection with fever. Antibiotic treatment is not necessary because the agent is viral.
Pharyngitis due to throat pain and burning is also often caused by viruses. Group A beta hemolytic streptococci may also be the causative agent of pharyngitis in older children. Antibiotic treatment should be started if necessary by differentiating with throat culture and some rapid tests (such as Strept A). Tonsillitis is a form of pharyngitis where inflammation is concentrated on the tonsils and an inflammatory membrane covers the tonsils. Viral and bacterial tonsillitis cannot be separated from each other by examination. Headache, weakness, abdominal pain, the presence of a white membrane on the tonsils and swelling of the lymph nodes suggest a bacterial infection. Therefore, in severe tonsillitis and pharyngitis, it may be necessary to administer an appropriate antibiotic, even if one third of the cases are active bacteria. Although there is no rapid improvement in antibiotic therapy in streptococcal infections, antibiotic treatment should be continued for 10 days to prevent acute rheumatic fever and complete eradication of bacteria in the throat.
: What should families take care to protect children from throat infections?
Dr. Contact Murat directly The most important measure of protection is washing of hands. In this way, the secretions of the infected persons are prevented from being transmitted to the entry routes of infection such as mouth, conjunctiva and nose. Closure of the mouth during coughing and sneezing and the use of paper masks by sick people also eliminate contamination through the droplet. Non-smoking at home and indoors significantly reduces the frequency of infection. It is reported that children who are breastfed have fewer upper respiratory infections.
In repeated group A beta hemolytic streptococcal infections, it is very important to cultivate throat culture in all family members and to detect and treat them if there is a surrogate at home. It is also very important for the child with streptococcal throat infection to use the appropriate dose of antibiotic for 10 days and to apply intramuscular depot penicillin treatment every three weeks if necessary.